What is type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by deficient production of insulin in the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow glucose (sugar) to enter cells to produce energy. When a person has type 1 diabetes, the body is still able to get glucose from food, but the lack of insulin means that glucose can't get into the cells where it's needed. Without insulin our bodies cannot use the sugar in our blood, so the sugar builds up there. This makes the blood sugar level very high and causes health problems. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.
Risk factors
  • Family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.
  • Genetics. The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
  • Geography. The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you travel away from the equator. People living in Finland and Sardinia have the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes — about two to three times higher than rates in the United states. 
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes.
  • Random blood test sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes.
  • Fasting blood test sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
There is no cure for type 1 diabetes. However, with proper treatment, people can expect to live longer, healthier lives than did people with type 1 diabetes in the past.
  • 1.25M Americans are living with type 1 diabetes including about 200,000 youth and over a million adults 
  • 40,000 people are diagnosed each year in the U.S.
  • Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents have the highest rate of new cases of type 1 diabetes
about type 1 diabetes

  • "Type 1 Diabetes." Type 1 Diabetes - Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 02 Aug. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.
  • "Type 1 Diabetes: Overview." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.
  • "Diabetes." WHO | Diabetes. World Health Organization, Nov. 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.
  • Commissioner, Office Of the. "Diabetes." FDA | Diabetes. Office of the Commissioner, 8 Feb. 2017. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.
  • "Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital." Type 1 Diabetes. Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, Apr. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.
  • "Basics About Diabetes." Basics | Diabetes | CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 31 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2017
  • "Diabetes Overview." Diabetes Overview | NIDDK. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Feb. 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.



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